Peter Johnson


Professor of Computing Science


Department of Computer Science,

University of Bath


See also

Departmental Home Page

Systems Engineering for Autonomous Systems


Further Qualification: Bachelor of Fluencing (Unseen).

Joined University of Bath in 1999 from Department of Computer Science, Queen Mary and Westfeld College, University of London (1984 - 1999).  Research Fellow at University College London, Ergonomics Unit (1981-4). PhD in Cognitive Psychology at Warwick University (1978-81)


Current Funded Projects

Current EPSRC research grants

GR/R40739/01 Human Computer Interaction and Flight Deck Safety. £223,000  Completed  June 2005. EPSRC Research Cluster - Creativity in Design for the 21st Century - with Dr. H. Johnson  £61,000 - STARTED 1/1/05.

EPSRC Engineering Doctorate Centre in Systems Engineering-  in collaboration with Loughborough, BAE systems, Leicester, Strathclyde, QUB.  Four year funding of Centre --- £3.5m APPROVED for Funding by PANEL 6/5/05

EPSRC/BAE System-  Novel Systems Engineering for Networked Enabled Capabilities FUNDING. Large consortium led by BAE and Loughborough 5 year project EPSRC contribution £7.66M APPROVED May 2005

Other Current Research Grants,

DTI - in Collaboration with Airbus and Qinetiq, Information presentation and synthesis for system assessment IPSSA  £180,000 Funded June 2004 for 19 Months in the first instance.

BAE Systems  - Autonomous Vehicles Defence Technology Centre  - Efficient collaboration strategies for autonomous vehicles.  Funding £446,100 from 1/5/05 to 30/1/08.

Research Networks

EPSRC Cluster on Creativity in Design held at Bath - Executive member

EPSRC Cluster on Complexity in Design - Executive member

EPSRC Network on Memories for Life - Executive member

EPSRC Network on Risk - Member


Other major funding

EPSRC Master Training Package for MSc in Human Communication and Computing £579,493 until September 2006.  Now replaced by new EPSRC CTA awarded 2004.

Current Funded Projects

Extending HCI Principles for Enhanced Cockpit Safety, EPSRC

The aim of this recently funded research project is to develop a principled HCI design approach for use in complex, safety critical environments. Specifically, the principles developed will be used to resolve common cognitive failures in the execution of flight-deck tasks. These principles will therefore contribute to lower rates of pilot error. In order to achieve this, existing work on Task Knowledge Structures (TKS) [Johnson P, Johnson H, Hamilton F, 2000] will be extended for application in safety critical interface design. This extension will involve the identification of common knowledge structures across multiple safety critical environments, including but not limited to the co-ordination and verification of instructions, error recovery and the updating of system state knowledge. Empirical studies will be used to investigate and evaluate both the principles and the resulting redesigns.

Information presentation and synthesis for system assessment IPSSA


DTI - in Collaboration with Airbus and Qinetiq, £180,000 Funded June 2004 for 19 Months in the first instance. The project is investigating representations and models  in the design and assessment of aviation systems. It is considering how to improve the efficiency and accuracy in the processes of assessment, by a greater use of design models and design representations. The current and past project research staff; Ms. AislinMartin, Dr. Robin Law, Mr. Fabio Nemetz, Dr. Vassilis Kostakos.

Designing for the 21st Century: Understanding and Supporting Group Creativity

AHRBC/EPSRC Sponsored Interdisciplinary Research Cluster. Principal Investigator Dr. Hilary Johnson. Co-investigator  Prof. Peter Johnson. 

The aims of this research cluster are:

For Workshops, forum and reports See:

Systems Engineering Doctorate Centre

EPSRC funded Systems Engineering Doctorate Research Centre collaboratively formed between Loughborough University, University of Bath, University of Leicester, University of  Strathclyde and Queens University Belfast and involving major systems engineering industrial partners including BAE Systems, Rolls Royce and others.

Creativity In Design - Research Cluster Co-investigator Dr. H. Johnson Principal Investigator.

12 month EPSRC funded project aimed at establishing research communities and identifying research questions in the area of design and how to support collaborative and creative aspects of design. Staff employed Mr. Tim Coughlan

Autonomous Systems - Defence Technology Centre - Principal Investigator for Collaboration in Decision Making and Planning .  A 4year project to investigate human aspects of interacting with and collaborations of systems comprising humans and different groupings and  levels of "autonomous vehicles".  Staff employed: Mr. Rachid Hourzi and Ms. Aisling Martin.

Novel Systems Engineering for Network Enabled Capabilities EPSRC/BAE Systems.  

A 5 year collaborative project involving major research groups in leading UK Universities and different sectors of BAE systems. Our area of research is to address the human aspects of such systems and in particular the interactions that take place between human and non-human aspects of the system in the processes of decision making. Staff to be appointed

Past Funded Projects


Configurable structured message systems (with Jean Dollimore, Sylvia Wilbur and George Coulouris)

Task Analysis for System Design

This is where Hilary Johnson and I first developed the Task Knowledge Structures theory and methods.

Early Evaluation Techniques

We developed an initial framework of generalised task and interaction models in this project.

Task Oriented Modelling of Systems (TOMS)

We investigated the use of algebraic and logic based specification of task and system models.

Multimedia systems and User Models (MUMS)

Here we investigated integrated multimedia communication and domain application software for group working in environmental planning.

Interactive Dialogues for Explanation & Learning (IDEAL) Funding source - ESPRIT 1989-1992 grant holder Peter Johnson

This was an ESPRIT II Basic Research Action on "Interactive Dialogue models for explanation and learning". This research involved an important extension to TKS to handle fundamental task knowledge structures such as explanation, negotiation, etc. A TKS of how to provide explanations was produced. The project involved collaboration with City University, University of Pisa and University of the Aegean. Research staff: Dr. Hilary Johnson

Task, Organisational and Group Systems (TOGS) funding source KPMG. 1991-1993 grant holder: Peter Johnson

The project investigated the methods of modelling group and organisational requirements for computer systems. Research staff: Christine Knowles.

Advanced Interaction Techniques for Naval Interfaces

John Samuel and Panos Markopoulos investigated novel graphical interaction for multiple planning and control tasks.

AEGIS funding source EEC 1992-1994 grant holder Peter Johnson

This project developed scenarios for the design of the next generation of European air traffic management workstations. This involved defining the user requirements for complex cognitive tasks on the ground and in the air. The research has applied the results of the ADEPT and the TOM projects to these problems. Research staff: Dr. Hilary Johnson, S.Gikas.

From Task Models to Demonstrable Prototypes - an Advanced Design Environment for Prototyping and Task modelling (ADEPT). Funding source SERC/DTI 1990-93 grant holder Peter Johnson

This project builds upon the earlier work on task knowledge structures (TKS) commenced under the ICL project. The research has made a significant advancement in developing a model-based approach to the design of user interfaces. The results have included a demonstration environment for constructing user interfaces using a variety of model-based tools. The industrial collaborators were British Aerospace, British Maritime Technology and MJC2. Research staff: Steph Wilson, James Pycock

Supporting Designers and Users in the Creation of Interactive Systems funding source EPSRC, 1995-1998 grant holders Peter Johnson, Hilary Johnson.

The purpose of the research was to investigate how designers and users may participate in the design and development of interactive systems from the perspective of their intended usage. The research aimed to further the understanding of the software design process by focusing design on issues that effect how the system is to be used and its fitness for purpose. The work was based on research issues arising from earlier work on investigating and developing a user and task-based prototyping environment. Research staff: S.Wilson, M.Bekker, M.van de Kant

Applying Requirements to Architectural Models of Interactive Systems (ARAMIS) 1995-1998 funding source EPSRC, grant holder Peter Johnson

This project was designed to bring together disparate work on specification and prediction in the design of human-computer interfaces. The overall aim of the project was to enable work and domain oriented requirements to be applied to formal architectural models of user interfaces expressed in terms of a novel formulation of "interactors". The purpose of this is to enable the HCI designer to define and experiment with the architecture of the user interface (at an abstract level) while simultaneously investigating its temporal properties as they relate to task and domain requirements. The principle themes of the research are: (i) to refine the "interactor model" and develop its theoretical properties, (ii) to enable the derivation of formal expressions of domain and work oriented requirements that are applicable to an verifiable in interactor based architectural models of user interfaces, and (iii) to facilitate the use of these advances within practical HCI design through the development of prototype software tools.

Representations to Support Communication between Users and Designers (RESCUED). 1996-2000, funding source EPSRC grant holders Peter Johnson, Hilary Johnson

This project investigated the use of TKS models as a communication between users and designers. A framework was produced for relating representations used in design, to the communication that occurs and the design activities that are required. An assessment was made of the benefits to be gained from using particular representations in specific communication and design activities to produce prescriptions for the use of representation in design. Research staff: Dr. E O 'Neill, A. Dickenson.

PRIDE, Principles for Design and Evaluation.

EPSRC funded project to investigate principle of user interface design based on task knowledge structures. The project takes as its starting point two implications of Task Knowledge Structures. First that the goal and procedural structures of tasks produce a causal relationship between activities that once established and learned affects human task performance. Furthermore, that this relationship has implications for the semantic and perceptual design properties of user interfaces. Second, the taxonomic object structure of task knowledge once established and learned also affects human task performance. The semantic and perceptual properties of user interfaces can and should be designed with this in mind. The research is carrying out theoretical, empirical and design studies to further develop these principles. The research project originated with the PhD work of Fraser Hamilton and currently Devendra Fakun was employed as the research member of staff.

Collaborative Virtual Environments

EPSRC funded project to investigate the design of collaborative environments and their user interfaces to effectively support remote, collaborative working within groups and between groups of different expertise. The research is in collaboration with Professor Peter Dew of the School of Computing Science, University of Leeds. Dr. David Golightly and Jo Hyde were the research member of staff at the University of Bath.

Modeling multiple and collaborative work tasks: integrating TKS and ICS (TICKS)

The research aim is to provide a new integrated approach, (TICKS) based on (TKS) and (ICS), to model the social and communicative processes and knowledge, involved in multitasking and collaborative work tasks, undertaken in dynamically changing situations. We need to increase our understanding of modelling work tasks by considering how the activities of collaboration are themselves embodied in cognitive, social and contextual processes and phenomena. New situations of use indicate a need for individuals to work simultaneously on more than one task often in collaboration with other people, and in varying contexts and locations. This necessitates identifying user's task knowledge, the relationship between tasks and the mental effort required in executing tasks. Working on collaborative tasks means identifying group goals, and how they can be achieved whilst minimising individual and group mental effort. Communication between group members needs to be modelled as do the organisational and contextual constraints within which the tasks are to be performed. From an HCI perspective, it is necessary to identify user, group and task requirements for interactive systems to support multitasking and collaboration. This project is funded by the EPSRC for 36 months. The Bath team is lead by Dr. H. Johnson and Professor P. Johnson, and the Shefffield team is led by Dr. Jon May.  Tim Gamble and Peter Wild are the Research Officers at Sheffield and Bath.


Involved in teaching HCI and Human-Computer System design at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Recently established a new, MSc in Human Communication and Computing jointly with the Department of Psychology, University of Bath.


Head of Department of Computer Science



Johnson,P. (1980), The relative weighting of visual and non visual coding in a simple motor learning task. Journal of Motor Behavior,12,4,281-292.


Johnson,P. (1982), Functional equivalence of images and movements. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 34A, 349-365.


Johnson,P. (1984), Skill acquisition. In Smyth, M.M. & Wing A. (eds.) The psychology of human movement. London, Academic Press.

Johnson,P. Diaper,D. & Long,J. (1984), Syllabi for training in information technology. In E. Megaw (ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics. London, Taylor & Francis.

Visick,D., Johnson,P. & Long,J.  (1984), A comparative analysis of keyboards and voice recognition in a parcel sorting task. In E. Megaw (ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics. London, Taylor & Francis.


Johnson,P.  (1985), Towards a task model of messaging: an example of the application of TAKD to user interface design.  In P.Johnson & S. Cook (eds.) People and computers I: Designing the interface.  Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, P. (1985), Task description in training and interface design.  Invited paper for  ICL Workshop on Usability Design Strategies. Bracknell. U.K.

Johnson,P., Diaper,D. & Long,J. (1985), Task, skills and knowledge:  Task analysis for knowledge descriptions.  In B. Shackel (ed.) Interact 84. Oxford.  North Holland.

Johnson,P., Diaper,D. & Long,J. (1985), Task analysis in interactive system design and evaluation. In J.Johannsen, C.Mancini & L.Martensson (eds.)  Analysis, design and evaluation of man-machine systems.  Oxford. Pergamon Press.

Visick, D., Johnson,P.  & Long,J. (1985), The use of simple speech recognisers in industrial applications.  In B. Shackel (ed.) Interact 84. Oxford.  North Holland.


Johnson, P. (1986), Task models and task analysis.  Invited paper presented to 2nd Alvey Conference. Brighton. U.K.

Johnson,P. (1986), Human Factors for interactive system design: teaching human factors to software engineers. I.E.E. Colloquium on education for man-machine system design. London. IEE.Savoy Place.

Johnson, P., Long,J., & Visick, D. (1986), Voice versus keyboard: Use of a comparative analysis of learning to identify skill requirements of input devices. In M.Harrison & A.Monk (eds.) People and computers III: Designing for usability. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.


Johnson, P. (1987), Education in HCI. Computer Bulletin.

Buckley, P. & Johnson, P. (1987), Analysis of communication tasks for the design of a structured message system. In D. Diaper (ed). People and computers III HCI 87 . Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Keane, M. & Johnson,P. (1987), Preliminary analysis for design. In D. Diaper  & R. Winder (eds). People and computersIII HCI 87. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.


Johnson, P. (1988), Goals, Plans and Explanations.  Proceedings of the  4th Alvey Explanation Workshop, Manchester University .

Johnson, P. & Johnson, H. (1988), Practical and theoretical aspects of human-computer interaction. Journal of Information Technology  vol. 3, pp147 - 161.

Johnson, P., Johnson, H. & Russell, A. J.  (1988) Collecting and generalising knowledge descriptions from task analysis data. ICL Technical Journal, vol 6.,  Pp. 137 - 155.

Johnson, P., Johnson, H. ,Waddington, R. & Shouls A. (1988) Task-Related Knowledge Structures: Analysis, modelling and application.  In Jones D., & Winder R. (eds.)  People and Computers  IV (HCI 88) Cambridge University Press. p 35-62.

Buckley, P. & Johnson, P. (1988),  Analysis of communication tasks in the COSMOS project. In R. Speth (ed) Research into networks and distributed applications; proceedings of European teleinformatics conference.  Amsterdam, North-Holland.


Johnson, P. (1989) HCI models in software engineering; task oriented models of interactive software. In  K. Bennett (ed.)  Software Engineering  Environments.  Ellis Horwood. p 111-140.

 Johnson, P (1989) Task Knowledge Structures.  In Diaper D. (ed.) Task analysis in Human Computer Interaction. Ellis Horwood.

Johnson, P. & Johnson, H. (1989), Knowledge Analysis of Tasks: Task analysis and specification for human-computer systems. In Downton, A. (ed.) Engineering the Human Computer Interface, pp.119-144 McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead.

Diaper, D. & Johnson, P. (1989), Task Analysis for Knowledge Descriptions: theory and application in training. In J. Long & A Whitefield (eds).  Cognitive Ergonomics and Human Computer Interaction. Cambridge.  Cambridge University Press.

Edmondson, D & Johnson, P (1989) A HyperCard simulation tool for task analysis In  A. Life (ed. ) Simulation  in user interface design. Taylor & Francis.

Johnson, H. & Johnson P. (1989)  Designing user interfaces from task models. Proceedings of third International Conference on Human Computer Interaction, Boston. North-Holland.

Waddington, R. & Johnson, P. (1989a), A family of task models for interface design. In Sutcliffe  A. & Macaulay L. (eds.) People and Computers V. Cambridge University Press.

Waddington, R. & Johnson, P. (1989b), Designing and evaluating interfaces using task models.In G. X. Ritter (ed.)  11th World Computer Congress ( IFIP Congress 89). North Holland.


Johnson, P. (1990) Designing and evaluating interactive dialogues.  International Conference Computer,  man and organisation II. Nivelles Belgium May 1990.

Johnson, P. Drake, K. & Wilson, S. (1990) A framework for integrating User Interface Management Systems (UIMS) and User Task Models (UTM). In D. Duce, R. A. Hopgood, & M. Gomez (eds) User interface management systems. Springer-Verlag, London

Johnson,P. & Nicolosi, E. (1990) A task based user-interface development tools. In D. Diaper et al (eds.) Human Computer Interaction;   Interact90.  North Holland, Amsterdam.

Coulouris G. F. & Johnson P. (1990) Teaching interactive system design using HyperCard and MacApp. Apple European University Conference , Salamanca, Spain.

Johnson, H. & Johnson, P (1990) Designer's requirements for task analysis in systems design. Ergonomics, Special Issue on IT.  vol 32. no 11, pp1451-1467.

Johnson, H. & Johnson, P. (1990)  Designer identified requirements for tools to support task analyses. In Human Computer Interaction,  INTERACT90,  pp259-265 Cambridge. North Holland.

Johnson, H.  & Johnson P. (1990) Interactive dialogues for explanation and learning (IDEAL); The effects of different explanatory dialogue styles on learning by non-experts. Proceedings of the 5th Alvey Explanation Workshop, University of Manchester, 25th-27th April.

Johnson, H. & Johnson P. (1990) Identifying and meeting designers' requirements for task analysis tools.  Proceedings of  5th European workshop on cognitive ergonomics, 3-6th September, Italy.

Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1990). Generating Explanations: There is more to it than meets the eye, Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology (InfoJapan 90),  Tokyo, Japan.

 Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1990). Tailoring Explanations to the User's Level of Expertise and Domain knowledge, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Tools For Artificial Intelligence 90 (TAI 90), Washington D.C., USA.

 Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1990). Consultation Dialogues, Proceedings of the Tenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence Workshop on Complex Systems, Ethnomethodology and Interaction Analysis (AAAI-90), Boston, USA.

 Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1990). Interpreting questions and generating explanations during consultation dialogues, Proceedings of the Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence '90 (PRICAI 90), Nagoya, Japan.

 Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1990). Interpreting real life questions and explanations, Proceedings of the 5th Rocky Mountain Conference on Artificial Intelligence (RMCAI 90), New Mexico, USA.

 Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1990). Generating explanations from question paths, Proceedings of the 5th Jerusalem Conference on Information Technology (JCIT 90), Jerusalem, Israel.

 Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1990). Explanation Dialogues: A computational Model of interpreting questions and generating tailored explanations, Proceedings of the 5th UK Workshop on Explanations, Manchester University, UK.

 Sarantinos, E., Johnson, P. and Johnson H. (1990). Theoretical, Empirical and Computational Approaches to Explanation Dialogues, Proceedings of the Colloquium on "AI in the user Interface", Computing and Control Division, Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE), UK.

 Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1990). Associating multiple question types with appropriate explanation structures, Proceedings of the Workshop on Computer Aided Open Access Education, Napier Polytechnic of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.


Johnson, P. (1991) Task oriented models of interactive devices.  In Bullinger, H. (ed.)  Human Aspects in Computing: proceedings of the 4th International Human Computer Interaction Conference, Stuttgart, 1991. North Holland Amsterdam.

Johnson, P. (1991) HCI at QMW - a laboratory review.  In Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI91  New Orleans, ACM, Addison Wesley, USA.

Johnson, H. & Johnson, P. (1991) Empirical investigation of different explanatory dialogue styles. In H.J.Bullinger (ed)  Human Aspects in Computing. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, pp915-920. 

Johnson, H. & Johnson, P. (1991) Task Knowledge Structures: Psychological basis and integration into system design. Acta Psychologica, 78 pp 3-26.

Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1991). Question Analysis and Explanation Generation, Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-24), Hawaii, USA.

 Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1991). Explanation Dialogues: Question Disambiguation and Text Generation, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Expert Systems and their Applications, Avignon, France.

 Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1991). Monitoring the execution of contextualised explanations, In Y. A. Feldman and A. Bruckstein (editors), Artificial Intelligence and Computer Vision, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

 Sarantinos, E. and Johnson, P. (1991). Allowing multiple question types to influence the resulting explanation structure, In M. McTear and N. Creaney (editors), Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science '90, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.


Johnson, P. (1992) Design Rationale: some observations on its use in design. Proceedings of CHI 92,  Basic Research Symposium . Monterey, USA May1-2.

Johnson, P. (1992) The ADEPT user interface design environment. In A. Monk, D. Diaper & M. D. Harrison (eds.)  People and Computers VIII. Cambridge University Press,  Cambridge.

Johnson, P.,  Markopolus, P. and Johnson H. (1992) User task models and user interaction dialogues a formal modelling approach. In proceedings of, 11th Interdisciplinary workshop on informatics and psychology, Austria.

Johnson, P., Markopolus, P., Wilson, S., and Pycock, J., (1992) Task based design; mapping between user task models and user interface designs. In proceedings of Mental Models in Everyday Life, 2nd International workshop on mental models, Cambridge.

Bell, D. & Johnson, P. (1992) Support for the authors of multimedia tutorials. In Lors Kjedldahl (ed) Multimedia; Principles, systems and applications. Springer Verlag. Eurographics Seminar Series.

Borkoles, J.  Johnson.  P. (1992) ETKS: generative task modelling in user interface design. In B. Shriver (ed.) Proceedings of the 25th Hawaii international conference on systems sciences, pp699-709, IEEE computer soc. press USA.Coulouris G. F., Johnson P. & Buxton H. (1992) Teaching Application Design. In proceedings of ACM East-West HCI Workshop.  St Petersburg, Russia, August 4-8.

Dvorak, R. Sommerville, S. & Johnson P. (1992) A methodology for user-centred link structures for textbook to hypertext conversion.  B. Shriver (ed.) Proceedings of the 25th Hawaii international conference on systems sciences, pp629-640, IEEE computer soc. press USA.

Gikas S. & Johnson,P. (1992) Task oriented modelling of devices: the air traffic control domain. In proceedings of IEE colluquim on software in air traffic control systems - the future. IEE, Savoy Place. London.

Johnson, H & Johnson, P.  (1992)  Different explanatory dialogue styles and their effects on knowledge acquisition by novices.  In J. Nunamaker, Jr (ed) Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.  IEE Computer Press, pp 47-57.

 Johnson, H & Johnson, P.  (1992)  Acceptable explanations: Theory before implementation.    Proceedings of American Association of Artificial intelligence Spring Symposium on "Producing cooperative explanations", Stanford University 25th-27th March, p95-103.

Johnson, H. & Johnson, P.  (1992) Task Knowledge Structures; psychological basis and integration into system design. In G.C. Van de Veer, S. Bagnara and G. A. M. Kemper,  Cognitive Ergonomics Contributions from Experimental Psychology. North Holland, Amsterdam.

 Johnson, H. & Johnson, P. (1992) Task-based explanations in theory and in practice. In proceedings of Esprit international workshop on Task Based Explanations. Samos June 1992.

 Johnson, H. & Johnson, P. (1992) Task-based explanations: Knowledge content and patterns of provision.  In proceedings of 10th European conference on AI; workshop on "improving the use of knowledge-based systems with explanations".  Austria  August 1992.

Markopoulos, P. Pycock, J. Wilson, S. & Johnson, P. (1992) ADEPT- a task based design environment. In J. Nunamaker, Jr (ed) Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.  IEE Computer Press, pp 587-597.

Wilson, S., Pycock, J., Markopolous P. and Johnson, P. (1992) Modelling Perspectives in User Interface Design. In proceedings of ACM CHI workshop St. Petersburg Russia August


Johnson, P. (1993)  Design Rationale an analysis of its use. In proceedings of VAMMS 93, second Czech -  British  Symposium, Prague; March 1993.

Johnson, P. Wilson, S. Markopoulos, P. (1993). The ADEPT Toolset. In proceedings of Interchi93, ACM press, Amsterdam, April 1993.

Johnson, P. & Wilson,  S. (1993). A framework for task-based design. In proceedings of VAMMS 93, second Czech -  British  Symposium, Prague; March 1993.

Bell, D. & Johnson, P. (1993) Multimedia support for cooperative working. In proceedings of the ERCIM workshop on, Multimedia systems. Nancy, France 2-4th

Bloomfield, H. & Johnson, P. (1993) A cognitively salient mechanism for designing relational links between information nodes in hypertext systems. In proceedings of BCS HCI93, Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, H. & Johnson, P. (1993) Explanation facilities and interactive systems. In proceedings of International Workshop on Intelligent Interfaces. January 1993, Orlando, USA. ACM press

Wilson, S. Johnson, P. Markoplous, P. (1993) Beyond hacking: A  model based design approach to user interface design. In proceedings of BCS HCI93. Cambridge University Press.


Johnson, P. (1994) Intelligent multi-media, multi-modal systems. AAAI Spring Symposium, Stanford, March 1994.

Johnson, P. & Wilson ,S. (1994). Task-Based Design and Prototyping  ACM SIGCHI Basic Research Symposium, Boston,ACM.

 Johnson, P. &  Wilson S.,(1994).  Designing Interactive Sytems from Task Scenarios In IFIP workshop on design methods. Sch aerding, Austria.

Bloomfield, H. & Johnson, P. (1994) An evaluation of the effects of using cognitively salient links in hypertext. In short paper proceedings of BCS HCI people and computers, Glasgow.

Dutt, A. Johnson H. & Johnson P. (1994) Evaluating evaluation methods. People and Computers IX, BCS HCI conference, Cambridge University Press.


Johnson, P. (1995) Representation in Design, In proceedings of CHI 95 Basic Research Symposium, ACM. 

Johnson, P., Johnson, H. & Wilson, S. (1995) Scenario-based design and task analysis. In J.Carroll (ed.) Scenario Based Design. Wiley New York.

Johnson, P. Johnson H. & Wilson, S. (1995) Representations as vehicles to support communication in design. In proceedings of ACM CHI basic research symposium. Denver, USA.

Johnson, H. Johnson, P. & Wilson, S, (1995) Task analysis and participatory design. In proceedings of ACM CHI basic research symposium, Denver, USA.

Wilson, S. Johnson, P & Johnson H. (1995)  User participation in task-based design. In proceedings of ACM CHI basic research symposium, Denver USA.

Wilson S. & Johnson P. (1995) Empowering users in a task-based approach to design. Proceedings of DIS95 Symposium on designing interactive systems, pp 25-31, Ann Arbor, ACM Press. 1995


Johnson, P. (1996) Models that Shape Design. In proceedings of  CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing ACM Press.

Bekker, M., S. Wilson, P. Johnson & H. Johnson (1996) Costs and benefits of user involvement in design.  In proceedings of CHI96 Basic Research Symposium.

Bell, D & Johnson, P. (1996) Supported cooperative work and groupware systems. In D. Shapiro, M. Tauber & R. Traunmueller "The Design of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Groupware Systems" (series 'Human Factors in Information Systems' volume 12) Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland, ISBN: 0 444 81998 3.

Markopoulos P.  Rowson J. and Johnson P. (1996),  Dialogue Modelling  in the framework of an interactor model.   In proceedings of  DSV-IS'96,  University of NamurPress, Belgium, June 1996.

Wilson, S. & Johnson, P. (1996).  Bridging the generation gap in model based user interface design. In proceedings of ACM/IFIP conference on Computer Assisted Design of User Interfaces. J. Vanderdonct (ed.) University of Namur Press. 

Wilson, S., M. Bekker, H. Johnson & P. Johnson, Costs and benefits of user involvement in design: Practitioners' views. In proceedings of  HCI96 People and Computers, August. London 1996. Springer.


Markopoulos P. Johnson P. and Rowson J (1997), Formal Aspects of Task Based Design  Interactive Systems '97,  DSV-IS'97 Conference Proceedings, Springer-Wien,

Markopoulos P. Johnson P. and Rowson J (1997) Semi-formal rerpesentations of user-interface designs based on the Abstraction-Display-Controller Interactor model. In proceedings of  the "International workshop on Representations in Interactive Software Development", 2-4 July, QMW, University of London.

Markopoulos P. Rowson J and Johnson P. (1997) Composition and Synthesis with a formal  Interactor model. Interacting with Computers. 9 (1997) 197-223.

Markopoulos P, Rowson J & Johnson P., (1997) On the composition of interactor specifications. In Roast C & Siddiqi J (eds.) Formal Aspects of the Human Computer Interface. BCS-FACS workshop.  Springer eWiC series 1997.

Wilson, S. Bekker, M.M. Johnson, P. & Johnson H. (1997)  Helping and hindering user involvement - a tale of everyday design. In proceedings of ACM Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI97. ACM Press.


Johnson, P. (1998) Usability and mobility: Interactions on the move. In proceedings of EPSRC/BCS Workshop Glasgow 1998.

Johnson, P.  & Nemetz, F. (1998) Towards principles for multimedia systems. In proceedings of BCS HCI conference, People and Computers. 1998.

Hamilton, F, Johnson, P. & H. Johnson (1998) Task-related principles for user interface design. Paper presented at the Schaerding workshop on Task  analysis. Schaerding 2-4 June 1998.

Markopoulos, P. Papatzanis,G. & Johnson, P. (1998) Validating semi-formal specifications of interactors as design representations. In Markopolouos, P. & Johnson, P. eds. Design specification and verification of interactive systems 98'. Springer 1998.

Nemetz, F. & Johnson, P. (1998) Principles for Multimedia Systems. In proceedings of ACM CHI98 Workshop on Multimedia Systems.

Nemetz, F. & Johnson, P.(1998) Developing a principled approach to multimedia systems design. In Proceedings of IFIP Conference on Designing Efficient and Usable Multimedia Systems. Stuttgart, 1998.

Van de Kant, M., Wilson, S., Bekker, M., Johnson, H. & P. Johnson. (1998) Patchwork: A software tool for early design.   Short paper presented at CHI'98.


Johnson, P. (1999) Theory based design: from individual users and tasks to collaborative systems. In J. Vanderdonckt Ed  Proceedings of CADUI 99.

Johnson. P O'Neill, E.& Johnson H.  (1999) Representations in Interactive Software Developemnt, Human Computer Interaction, 1999.

Hamilton, F. H.Johnson & P.Johnson (1999) PRIDE: Task-related principles for user interface design. In  S.Brewster, A.Cawsey & G.Cockton, (eds) Proceedings of INTERACT99.

Markopoulos, P., Johnson, P. & Rowson, J.  (1999)Formal architectural abstractions for interactive software. International Journal of Human Computer Systems, 1999.

O'Neill, E, Johnson, P. Johnson H. (1999) Models in Design. Interact 1999, Edinburgh.

O'Neill, E., H.Johnson.,  P.Johnson, & P. Healey (1999) Representational support for user-developer communication in systems development. In  S.Brewster, A.Cawsey & G.Cockton, (eds) Proceedings of INTERACT99.

O'Neill, E. , Johnson, P. & H. Johnson (1999) Representations in co-operative software development. Human Computer Interaction, 1999.


Johnson, P.  (2000) Interaction, Collaboration and Mobile Communications: A Human-Computer Interaction Perspective. Proceedings of ACCOLADE 2000, Brussels, 2000.

Johnson, P., H. Johnson and F. Hamilton. Getting the Knowledge into HCI: Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Task Knowledge Structures. In. Cognitive Task Analysis. J. Schraagen, S. Chipman, V. Shalin LEA, 2000

Nemetz, F. & Johnson, P.(200) The Missing Link: Multimedia and E-Commerce, Proceedings of CHI2000.


Johnson, P. (2001) Interaction in Action. In Proceedings of Hand Held and Ubiquitous Computing, Workshop, EdsP. Gray and J. Creasy, Bristol 2001.

 Johnson. P. (2001)  Methods and Modelling: Fiction or Useful Reality? CHI 2001 Panel. In proceedings of CHI 2001 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Seattle, March 2001. ACM Press.

Hourizi, R. and Johnson,P (2001). Unmasking Mode Errors: a New Application of Task Knowledge Principles to the Knowledge Gaps in Cockpit Design. in Proceedings of Human Computer Interaction: Interact 2001, Michitaka Hirose (Ed pp 255-262 publisher: IOS Press ISBN 1 58603 188 0

Hourizi R, and Johnson, P (2001) "Beyond Mode Error: Supporting Strategic Knowledge Structures to Enhance Cockpit Safety." In: Blandford A, Vanderdonkt J & Gray P (eds.): People and Computers XV - Interaction without frontiers. Joint Proceedings of HCI2001 and ICM2001, Lille, 10-14th Sept. 2001, Springer Verlag, 229-246.

Johnson, H. , P.Johnson.,  P. Wild, J.May, T.R.Gamble (2001) Modelling multiple and collaborative tasks. In proceedings of  IHM 2001.


Johnson, P. (2002) 'Creativity & IT',  ACM - CREATIVITY AND COGNITION 4, Loughborough 13-16 Oct., 2002.

Bruseberg A, Solodilova I, Hourizi R, and Johnson P (2002) "A framework for re-examining accident reports to support interaction design processes." In: Johnson C (ed.): Proceedings of the Workshop on the Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Accidents (IRIA 2002), 17th - 20th July 2002, University of Glasgow, pp 184-193.

Hourizi R, Johnson P, Bruseberg A, Solodilova I (2002) "Modelling Collaborative Work in UML." In: Johnson C (ed.): Proceedings of the 21st European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Control (EAM 2002), 15th - 16th July 2002, University of Glasgow, pp 212-214.

Solodilova I, Bruseberg A:& Johnson P. (2002) Information integration in the glass cockpit. In: Chatty, S, Hansman, J & Boy, G (eds.): Proceedings of the HCI Aero 2002 (International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in Aeronautics), 23-25


Johnson, P., May, J. & H. Johnson (2003) Introduction to Multiple and Collaborative Tasks. Transactions on Computer Human Interaction.  December, Volume 10 (4), pp 1-4.

Bruseberg, A and Johnson, P  (2003) Understanding human error in context: approaches to support interaction design using air accident reports. In: Jensen R (ed.): Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 14-17 April 2003, Dayton, Ohio, USA, pp 166-171.

Hourizi R and Johnson P (2003) Towards an explanatory, predictive account of awareness. Computers and Graphics, vol. 27 (6),

Hourizi R. & Johnson. P.  (2003) Using traditional cinematic animation to enhance situation awareness in the glass cockpit. ACM CHI 2003, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, April 5-10 2003.

Solodilova I, Lintern G, and Johnson P (2003): The Modern Commercial Cockpit As a Multi-Dimensional, Information-Action Workspace. In: Jensen R (ed.): Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 14-17 April 2003, Dayton, Ohio, USA, pp 1096-1101.

Wild, P.J., Johnson, P., & Johnson, H. (2003) An Hour In The Life: Generating Requirements for Modelling Multiple Task Work. CHI'2003, Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, S.Bjork & J. Gulliksen (Eds.), ACM Press,

Wild, P.J., Johnson, H., & Johnson, P. (2003) Understanding Task Grouping Strategies. People and Computers XVII - Proceedings of HCI 2003: Designing for Society, P. Palanque, P. Johnson, & E. O'Neill (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, 8th - 12th September.


Johnson, P (2004) Interactions,  Collaborations and Breakdowns. TAMODIA 2004, 3rd International Workshop on task models and diagrams for user interface design.  Prague, Czech Republic, November 15-16, 2004.

Hourizi R. & Johnson P. (2004) Designing to support awareness: a predictive, composite model. Proceedings of the  ACM CHI 2004 conference on Human factors in computing systems Vienna, Austria Pages: 159 - 166, ACM Press. ISBN:1-58113-702-8

O'Neill, E. and Johnson, P. (2004) Participatory Task Modelling: users and developers modelling users' tasks and domains.  TAMODIA 2004, 3rd International Workshop on task models and diagrams for user interface design.  Prague, Czech Republic, November 15-16, 2004.

Solodilova I and Johnson P (2004) Mind References in the Glass Cockpit: An Experimental Study. In Proceedings of the HCI Aero 2004, 29 September - 1 October 2004 Toulouse, France, ACM  Press and The European Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Engineering, 2004.

Wild, P.J., Johnson, H., and Johnson, P. (2004) Towards A Composite Modelling Approach for Multitasking.  TAMODIA 2004, 3rd International Workshop on task models and diagrams for user interface design. Prague, Czeck Republic, November 15-16, 2004

Wild, P.J., Johnson, P.J., Roast, C., and Czerwinski, M. (2004), The Temporal Aspects Of Work For HCI.  CHI 2004 Vienna, ACM Press.

Wild, P.J., and Johnson, P. (2004) Deepening Consideration of Temporal Factors in Task Knowledge Structures. Workshop on 'Temporal Aspects of Work for HCI' CHI'2004,Vienna, ACM Press.


Solodilova I.&  Johnson,P.. Mind Reference: A Framework for Intuitive and Natural Interface

Design. 13th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Oklahoma, USA,  April 2005

Solodilova, I. & Johnson, P. Uncovering the information needs in complex aerospace systems. Complexity in Design Engineering Workshop 10-12th March 2005 University of Glasgow.


Middup C.P. & Johnson P. Using technological support of group memory in problem solving situations to improve self and collective efficacy. In Proceedings of HICSS-39 Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, Kauai January 4-7th 2006.

Solodilova I & Johnson P. Uncovering Pilot's information needs in complex aerospace systems.  Reliability Engineering and System Safety IN PRESS


Johnson, P. & Cook , S. (eds.) (1985),  People and computers: Designing the interface.  Cambridge.  Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, P. (1992) Human Computer Interaction: psychology, task analysis and software engineering. McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead.

Markopoulos P. & Johnson, P. (eds.) 1998, Interactive Systems' 98. Springer - Wien., London.

Sutcliffe, A. Ziegler, J. & Johnson P. (eds) 1998 Designing Effective and Usable Multimedia Systems,  Kluwer Academic Publishing. London

O'Neill, E. Palanque, P, & Johnson P.  (eds) (2003)  People and Computers XVIII - Design for Society.  Springer.  ISBN 1852337664